Storing carbon in forests and soils: the Italian case of greenhouse gas emissions

A conversation with Maria Vincenza Chiriaco

Agroforest and natural ecosystems provide food, fibers, fuel and other products and services. Not only do they store and make up a key pool of organic carbon, but they are also essential for genetic diversity and biodiversity, human well-being and mitigation to climate change.
There’s a growing interest in the role of the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and its relevance for national policies on mitigation and adaptation to climate change. According to the last official National Inventory of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs), targeted to report annual emissions and removals under the commitments of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, the Italian territory is represented by forests (about 30%), croplands (30%), grasslands (30%) and a remaining 10% of settlements, wetlands and otherwise classified lands. Improving and enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems will be crucial to cut global carbon emissions while addressing the challenges posed by climate change. “The State Forestry Corps (Corpo Forestale dello Stato) is carrying out the third National Forestry Inventory that will report the C absorption capacity of the Italian forests, while our book provides a dataset for croplands and grasslands”, says Maria Vincenza Chiriacò, CMCC researcher and one of the authors of the book The Greenhouse Balance of Italy. “We need more studies like this providing datasets and information to understand the C sequestration capacity of terrestrial ecosystems and their potential uses in mitigation programs for climate change.” Interview by Laura Caciagli

Climate Change Generation. Valuing Young People’s Voices

Interview to Adam Corner

For them, it is here and now. It belongs to our times but often we don’t know enough about the way they engage with the issue. “Young people are in an unusual position,” says Adam Corner, Research Director at the Climate Outreach and Information Network (COIN). “On the one hand they are the people who will define society’s long-term response to climate change. But they’re also the most vulnerable to the legacy of decisions made by older generations.” Although young adults arguably have the most to gain and the most to lose in a changing climate, their voices are not prominent in the public debate, and engagement with climate change appears in many ways, limited. Corner and colleagues released the report “Young Voices”, a first attempt to capture the ways in which young adults could be more effectively engaged. Their findings represent valuable lessons to communicate with young people about climate change. Interviewed by Laura Caciagli, Corner explores the issue while illustrating the narrative approaches that are more likely to resonate with the interests and values of young people.

Coalition and Networks: a beautiful dozen

Twenty years. Twelve papers. Eight high-level scientific and academic institutions, whose aim is the advancement and dissemination of research in the area of network and coalition theory. A book which is a tribute to the wide array of useful and interesting applications of the theory of coalitions and networks, partly underutilised by applied economists. In the preface of the volume “Coalitions and Networks. 12 papers from 20 years of CTN workshops”, Carlo Carraro (FEEM, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, and CMCC) celebrates the activities of an association that started in 1995 and, since then, has progressively become a reference point for the study of network and coalition formation and their applications. “Network theory aims to provide a unified framework for analysing the relation between agents’ position in the network and their actions and welfare” – Prof. Carraro explains in his presentation of this selection of papers, a beautiful dozen that outlines the ideas and the vision at the origin of the network. A collection that highlights the research topics that drove the interest on coalitions first and on networks then.

People on the move: migration in the face of climate change

A conversation with Koko Warner

Put aside any prophecy of doom. Let’s talk about something that could be used as a resilience-enhancing strategy. Something that could help to prevent people from being forced to move later on. Something that does not exclusively belong to our time and has always taken place in the past; a topic that lies in the area of collaboration between climate science and policy. To learn more about climate induced migrations, we asked Koko Warner some questions. Academic at the United Nations University, where she leads a research department on climate resilient society at the Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn (Germany), and lead author of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) on adaptation, Dr. Koko Warner is considered one of the most active and influential women in the international debate on climate change. “All regions and countries are affected without exceptions – she explains while addressing the complexity of the climate induced migrations topic – “Today, the overlapping effects of a constant increasing global population, different political and government assets, and the impacts and implications of climate change have caused new issues and challenges related to human migrations.” Interview by Laura Caciagli

Frontier research in operational oceanography between the Mediterranean and China Seas

Interview to Xiaolei Yi and Jilan Su

Coastal ocean science emerged as a very important issue in the 2000s when the world recognized the strategic importance and new major threats and challenges of this key environment. As climate change and its impacts represent severe stress on coastal environments, operational oceanography, coastal modeling and data assimilation, regional climate change projections, global ocean reanalyzes, and climate modeling have become essential to forecast and prevent hazards and disasters on natural and human ecosystems, societies, and economics. Oceans are different from laboratory experiments where you can change initial conditions; in the oceans you can’t change your settings and that’s the reason why comparisons are very important. To this end, a China-Italy international cooperation between CMCC, INGV, OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale) and National Marine Environment Forecasting Center (NMEFC) – State Oceanic Administration (SOA) of China was established. Climate Science and Policy had a conversation with ocean experts Xiaolei Yi (NMEFC) and Jilan Su (SOA) to have an overview of research frontiers such as ocean science progresses. Interview by Laura Caciagli

A climatologist’s chronicles from K2

Interview to Panos Athanasiadis

It is known as the hardest of all the eight-thousanders, the most remote and the least commercialized. It is hard, remote, and dangerously unpredictable. Panos Athanasiadis, climber and researcher at the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC), tried to reach the summit of K2 in the summer of 2014, without supplementary oxygen and without guides and high-altitude porters. In this conversation with Laura Caciagli, Panos tells to us his mixed feelings and his thoughts that accompanied such an extraordinary experience on the precipitous flanks of the K2 and into the so-called death zone, above 8000 m

Are we failing to stop climate change?

A conversation with Dale Jamieson

Despite the concerted international effort to stop climate change, it remains one of the most troubling and challenging issues that our societies have to address. Looking at the IPCC AR5 report in its entirety, it confirms and underlines what many scientists have been saying for some time: there is now certainty – more than ever before in the history of climate science – that climate change is happening and that humans are the main cause of it.
As global carbon emissions have reached record levels and keep rising, the IPCC AR5 confirms that climate change is already impacting all continents and the oceans, resulting in changes that are often unprecedented and could partly be – or soon become – irreversible.
In his book “Reason in a Dark Time: Why the Struggle Against Climate Change Failed – and What It Means for Our Future”, Professor of Environmental Studies and Philosophy at NYU Dale Jamieson tries to explain what climate change is, why we have failed to stop it and, more importantly, why what we do still matters. Our failure to prevent or even to respond significantly to climate change, Jamieson says, reflects the impoverishment of our systems of practical reason, the paralysis of our politics, and the limits of our cognitive and affective capacities.
Interview by Laura Caciagli

From uncertainty to risk: new languages in climate change communication

A conversation with James Painter

Something is probably happening in the climate change communication domain. Take the example of the Risky Business Report, a publication promoted by a bipartisan group of businessmen and politicians (including the former Mayor of NYC, Michael Bloomberg) released in June 2014. What’s new in the report? The focus is more on impacts than on science and highlights threats and costs for our societies. This is an example of a shift in the public discourse on climate change: from uncertainty to risk. This shift is exactly what James Painter, Director of the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism (Oxford University), is addressing in his latest research. “Several studies have shown that uncertainty messages about climate science are often an obstacle to public understanding, engagement or action – Painter says – but, at the same time, risk is a difficult way of framing the climate change story for television, which deals in pictures and strong narratives, not concepts or issues.”
So the shift is not easy and requires contributions not only from journalists and media experts, but also from decision makers and scientists. To say it with the words taken from the Republican former Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson: “We’ll never know enough to resolve all of the uncertainties. But we know enough to recognize that we must act now.”
Climate Science and Policy explores the implications of this shift – in particular, from the language of uncertainty to the language of risks – with James Painter in this interview by Laura Caciagli

No jobs on a dead planet: climate justice, gender equality and quality jobs on the road toward Paris 2015

Interview to Sharan Burrow

Climate justice, gender equality and decent work are three strongly related issues.
It’s clear that climate change is happening now and it is destroying quality jobs all around the world, especially in developing countries. Moreover, not only are women major victims of climate change, but they are also essential actors for climate mobilization, climate action and economic growth. Sharan Burrow, General Secretary of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) recently launched the “Unions4climate” campaign, a movement specifically designed to contribute to the political debate on the run up to Paris 2015. “It is imperative to decarbonise our world by 2050 – Burrow says – This requires both a decrease in carbon emissions and the deployment of breakthrough technologies. Another positive outcome is that Unions4climate will also provide millions of new job opportunities”.
Interviewed by Laura Caciagli, Sharan Burrow talks about how the movement of the trade union will aim to ensure jobs, rights and social equality while requiring a pledge and engagement to embrace the cause of a just transition towards sustainable development – a transition that must start now because “There are no jobs on a dead planet”.

Land grabbing: exploring challenges and implications for water, energy and food security

A conversation with Marta Antonelli

Increasing demand for water, energy and food related to population growth and urbanization, as well as changing lifestyles and diets, has spurred a new global rush for agricultural land and water resources. This phenomenon has been referred to as “land grabbing” and mainly rests on three inter-related causes: the food crisis and the need to secure reliable supply of cheap food for water and land scarce countries (such as the Gulf States) by outsourcing food production; the need to diversify energy sources and to boost biofuel production; the financial crisis which has exacerbated speculation on food and land as a result of huge amounts of capital seeking for more secure and profitable investments than traditional markets.
Although the acquisition of farming land per se is not a new phenomenon, the character, scale, pace, orientation, and key drivers of the current wave is a distinct unprecedented phenomenon, which seems to be closely tied to major shifts in power and production characterizing the new global political economy. Europe, and Italy in particular, plays a major role as an investor in foreign land, which has been raising major concerns about the claimed sustainability of EU energy and food policies and targets. Climate Science and Policy explored the main drivers and implications of land transactions around the world with Marta Antonelli, Research Fellow at IUAV University. Interview by Laura Caciagli